A bunion is a bony bump that forms at the base of your big toe, where it forms a union with a foot bone called the first metatarsal. Your big toe points excessively toward your second toe. Bunion is a foot deformity that consists of both bone and soft tissue and can be very painful.
Wearing shoes that are too small or too narrow in the toe area is the most common cause of bunions. This can be thought of as a pressure-response effect. Women are more likely than men to develop bunions. Bunion removal is sometimes called a bunionectomy, bunion surgery, or hallux valgus correction.
More than 100 different types of bunion removal procedures exist to remove the bunion and to realign the big toe. The type of surgery you need depends on how your bunion developed and its current size.
Some of the most common types of bunion removal procedures are:
Osteotomy, your surgeon will cut your big toe joint and realign it to a normal position.
Exostectomy, your surgeon will remove your bunion from the joint without performing an alignment.
Arthrodesis, your surgeon will replace the damaged joint with screws or metal plates to correct the deformity.